Movement and Distance


Movement, Position & Distance



Miniatures are on the 30mm scale—a miniature figure of a six foot tall human is approximately 30mm tall. A square on the battle grid is 1 inch across, representing a five foot-by-five foot area. While actual miniatures may not be exactly this scale, as long as the measurement of a tactical map are attributed five foot sections and are easily determined as such, the movement rules below can be easily implemented.


How Far Can A Character Move?
A character’s speed is determined by his background and his armor (see the Tactical Speed table). A character’s speed while unarmored is equal to its listed base land speed.


Encumbrance
A character encumbered by carrying a large amount of gear, treasure or fallen comrades may move slower than normal.


Hampered Movement
Difficult terrain, obstacles or poor visibility can hamper movement. Certain magical effects, movement rates and class features can modify or bypass these hindrances.


Movement in Combat
Generally, you can move your speed in a round and still do something (take a move action and a standard action). If you do nothing but move (that is, if you use both of your actions in a round to move your speed), you can move double your speed. If you spend the entire round running, you can move quadruple your speed. If you do something that requires a full round, you can only take a five foot step.


Bonuses to Speed
A Spartan or barbarian character has a +10 foot bonus to his speed, unless he is wearing heavy armor. In addition, some magical effects and divine items can affect a character’s speed. Always apply any modifiers to a character’s speed before adjusting the character’s speed based on armor or encumbrance and remember that multiple bonuses of the same type to a character’s speed do not stack, in keeping with the rules governing stacked bonuses and like types.


Measuring Distance on a Tactical Grid

Diagonals
When measuring distance, the first diagonal counts as 1 square, the second counts as 2 squares, the third counts as 1, the fourth as 2 and so on. You cannot move diagonally past a corner (even by taking a five foot step). You can move diagonally past a creature, even an opponent. You can also move diagonally past other impassable obstacles, such as pits, assuming there is a route by which you can do so.


Closest Creature
When it is important to determine the closest square or creature to a location, if two squares or creatures are equally close, randomly determine which one counts as closest by rolling a die.


Moving through a Square

Friendly Occupation
You can move through a square occupied by a friendly character, unless you are charging. When you move through a square occupied by a friendly character, that character does not provide you with cover.


Opponent’s Occupation
You cannot move through a square occupied by an opponent, unless the opponent is helpless. You can move through a square occupied by a helpless opponent without penalty. Some creatures, particularly very large ones, may present an obstacle even when helpless. In such cases, each square you move through counts as 2 squares.


Ending Your Movement
You cannot end your movement in the same square as another creature unless it is helpless.


Overrun
During your movement, or as part of a charge, you can attempt to move through a square occupied by an opponent.


Tumbling
A trained character can attempt to tumble through a square occupied by an opponent; see the Tumble skill. Failure typically ends a character’s movement and opens it up to an attack of opportunity.


Very Small Creature
A Fine, Diminutive or Tiny creature can move into or through an occupied square. The creature provokes attacks of opportunity when doing so.


Square Occupied by Creature Three Sizes Larger or Smaller
Any creature can move through a square occupied by a creature three size categories larger than it is. A big creature can move through a square occupied by a creature three size categories smaller than it is.


Designated Exceptions
Some creatures break the above rules. A creature that completely fills the squares it occupies cannot be moved past, even with the Tumble skill or similar special abilities.


Terrain and Obstacles

Difficult Terrain
Difficult terrain hampers movement. Each square of difficult terrain counts as 2 squares of movement. (Each diagonal move into a difficult terrain square counts as 3 squares.) You cannot run or charge across difficult terrain. If you occupy squares with different kinds of terrain, you can move only as fast as the most difficult terrain you occupy will allow. Flying and spiritual creatures are not hampered by difficult terrain.


Forests Of Spears
Part of the effectiveness of the phalanx as a battle formation is that although the long spear is a reach weapon and cannot attack adjacent targets, the sheer number of spears sticking out in front of a phalanx means that an opponent cannot easily approach without being skewered. There is simply no room to maneuver between the protruding spears. A square that is filled with spears in front of a phalanx counts as an obstacle, for which see below. If a creature is in a square threatened by a reach weapon and moves towards the wielder, then he still provokes an attack of opportunity for moving out of the threatened square. In this way, an opponent can be held at bay by a reach weapon. In a phalanx, where multiple reach weapons threaten the same squares, a creature attempting to move towards the Hoplites provokes multiple attacks of opportunity. This is one reason why the phalanx is such a devastating formation to use. A character may attempt to Tumble through a forest of spears and avoid attacks of opportunity.


Obstacles
Like difficult terrain, obstacles can hamper movement. If an obstacle hampers movement but does not completely block it, each obstructed square or obstacle between squares counts as 2 squares of movement. You must pay this cost to cross the barrier, in addition to the cost to move into the square on the other side. If you do not have sufficient movement to cross the barrier and move into the square on the other side, you cannot cross the barrier. Some obstacles may also require a skill check to cross. On the other hand, some obstacles block movement entirely. A character cannot move through a blocking obstacle. Flying and spiritual creatures can avoid most obstacles

Squeezing In some cases, you may have to squeeze into, or through, an area that is not as wide as the space you take up. You can squeeze through, or into, a space that is at least half as wide as your normal space. Each move into, or through, a narrow space counts as if it were 2 squares and while squeezed in a narrow space you take a –4 penalty on attack rolls and a –4 penalty to Active Defense; you may not make Shield Defense checks. When a Large creature (which normally takes up four squares) squeezes into a space that’s one square wide, the creature’s miniature figure occupies two squares, centered on the line between the two squares. For a bigger creature, centre the creature likewise in the area it squeezes into. A creature can squeeze past an opponent while moving but it cannot end its movement in an occupied square. To squeeze through, or into, a space less than half your space’s width, you must use the Escape Artist skill. You cannot attack while using Escape Artist to squeeze through, or into, a narrow space, you take a –4 penalty to Active Defense and you lose any Dexterity bonus to Active Defense. You may not make Shield Defense checks at all.


Special Movement Rules

These rules cover special movement situations.


Accidentally Ending Movement in an Illegal Space
Sometimes a character ends its movement while moving through a space where it is not allowed to stop. When that happens, put your miniature in the last legal position you occupied or the closest legal position, if there’s a legal position that’s closer.


Double Movement Cost
When your movement is hampered in some way, your movement usually costs double. For example, each square of movement through difficult terrain counts as 2 squares and each diagonal move through such terrain counts as 3 squares (just as two diagonal moves normally do). If movement cost is doubled twice, then each square counts as 4 squares (or as 6 squares if moving diagonally). If movement cost is doubled three times, then each square counts as 8 squares (12 if diagonal) and so on. This is an exception to the general rule that two doublings are equivalent to a tripling.


Minimum Movement
Despite penalties to movement, you can take a full-round action to move five feet (one square) in any direction, even diagonally. This rule does not allow you to move through impassable terrain or to move when all movement is prohibited. Such movement provokes attacks of opportunity as normal, since despite the distance travelled, this move is not technically a five foot step. Note also that this special kind of movement does not apply to characters that are held immobile by a magical effect or otherwise completely unable to move due to some outside force.


Big and Little Creatures in Combat
Creatures smaller than Small or larger than Medium have special rules relating to position.


Tiny, Diminutive and Fine Creatures
Very small creatures take up less than 1 square of space. This means that more than one such creature can fit into a single square. A Tiny creature typically occupies a space only twoand- a-half feet across, so four can fit into a single square. Twenty-five Diminutive creatures or 100 Fine creatures can fit into a single square. Creatures that take up less than 1 square of space typically have a natural reach of 0 feet, meaning they cannot reach into adjacent squares. They must enter an opponent’s square to attack in melee. This provokes an attack of opportunity from the opponent. You can attack into your own square if you need to, so you can attack such creatures normally. Since they have no natural reach, they do not threaten the squares around them. You can move past them without provoking attacks of opportunity. They also cannot flank an enemy.


Large, Huge, Gargantuan and Colossal Creatures
Very large creatures take up more than 1 square. Creatures that take up more than 1 square typically have a natural reach of 10 feet or more, meaning that they can reach targets even if they are not in adjacent squares. Unlike when someone uses a reach weapon, a creature with a greater than normal natural reach (more than 5 feet) still threatens squares adjacent to it. A creature with greater than normal natural reach usually gets an attack of opportunity against you if you approach it, because you must enter and move within the range of its reach before you can attack it. (This attack of opportunity is not provoked if you take a five foot step.) Large or larger creatures using reach weapons can strike up to double their natural reach but cannot strike at their natural reach or less.









Movement and Distance

Age of Heroes TolsimirWolfblood